金牌-大只500平台官网欢迎您
金牌北京大只500官网【Q64555253】
Copyright © 2002-2020 金牌-大只500平台官网欢迎您 版权所有

大只500登录平台_国际贸易结算的基本方式

  国际结算方式是国际结算的核心内容。基本结算方式即狭义的国际结算方式,其主要作用 是解决国际间资金划拨、转移,或资金从债务人流向债权人的途径和渠道问题,程序性很强。基本结算方式主要包括信用证、汇付/汇款、托收和电子付款4种方式。翻译公司的译员了解这些对商务翻译工作有很大帮助。
  1.信用证(Letter of Credit,简称 L/C)
  信用证是银行应开证申请人的要求,向第三者开立的承诺在一定期限内凭规定的单据支付 一定金额的书面文件。信用证属于银行信用,采用的是逆汇法。它的出现在很大程度上解决了 买卖双方之间互不信任的矛盾,被广泛应用于国际贸易之中,成为当今国际贸易中的一种主要 的结算方式。本书将在下一单元作进一步的详细介绍。

  2.汇付/汇款(Remittance)
  Remittance means the transfer of money through banks from one party to another. The importer pays the sum for the transaction agreed upon with the exporter directly to the seller/exporter through a bank. This method is carried out in three ways.
  (1)Telegraphic transfer (T/T)
  (2)Mail transfer (M/T)
  (3)Demand draft (D/D)
  M/T refers to the transfer made between banks by mail, with the advantage of low charges. T/T means the transfer made by telecommunication system such as telex or telegraph. It is faster than M/T, but more expensive.
  Under D/D, the buyer buys a check from a bank in the importing country, called a banker’s demand draft, and sends it to the seller (the payee) so that the seller can get money by presenting the demand draft to a bank (the drawee) in the exporting country. D/D is transferrable, which is different from M/T and T/T. This method is fast and of low cost, but is least safe since the payer does not have any guarantee whatsoever for receiving the goods after payment. It is mostly used when the amount of money involved is small.

  3.托收(Collection)
  托收是出口商通过出具汇票、委托银行向进口商收取货款的方式。托收属于商业信用,采用的是逆汇法。与汇款结算方式不同的是,托收不是进口商或债务人的主动付款,而是出口商 或债权人的催收,并且收款对象是进口商而不是其他人。
  托收方式的当事人有委托人、托收行、代收行和付款人。委托人(principal),即开出汇票 委托银行向国外付款人代收货款的人,也称为出票人(drawer),通常为出口人;托收行(remitting bank)即接受出口人的委托代为收款的出口地银行;代收行(collectingbank),即接受托收行的 委托代付款人收取货款的进口地银行;付款人(payer或drawee),即托收行的付款人,通常为 进口人。上述当事人中,委托人与托收行之间、托收行与代收行之间都是委托代理关系,付款 人与代收行之间不存在任何法律关系。
  托收主要是建立在商业信用上,委托人能否收到货款,完全视进口人的信誉好坏,风险较 大。因此,釆用托收方式的出口商可釆取一些降低收款风险的预防措施,包括加强对进口商资 信调查、了解进口国家有关规定等。
  4.电子付款(Electronic payment (E-pay))
  Payment through electronic system is fast and the payer can pay at any time, regardless of the business hour of the relevant bank or company of the importer country. Electronic systems support B-to-C and B-to-B transactions by means of credit card, magnetic strip card, electronic check and electronic money. But users of this payment system need to satisfy a number of requirements, including integrity, trust, anonymity, confidentiality, authentication, etc.
  在一般的国际货物买卖合同中,通常只单独使用某一种方式。但在特定情况下,也可以在 同一笔交易中把两种甚至两种以上不同的方式结合起来使用。

点此联系

2020-08-15
Copyright © 2002-2020 金牌-大只500平台官网欢迎您 版权所有